PHP Functional Programming – A code snippet

Given a string of comma-separated values, how do you convert each of them into a link of the form:
<a href=”http://–item&#8211;”>–item–
and return a comma-separated list of these strings?

Snippet 1:

//Make these links to

$string = "news,reader,mail";

$array_of_string = split(",",$string);

$final = array();

foreach($array_of_string as $item){
	$final[] = "<a href='http://".$item."'>$item</a>";

echo implode(", ",$final);

Snippet 2 (uses functional constructs):


//Make these links to

$string = "news,reader,mail";

$array_of_string = split(",",$string);

echo implode(", ", 
	'return "<a href=\'http://".$item."\'>$item";'


Downloading your data using Greasemonkey

Whenever I use some service over the web, I look for several things. Ease of use and customisability are important factors.

However, the most important thing I consider is vendor lock-in (or rather the lack of it). Let's say I am using a particular mail service (ex, GMail). If someday, I find a better email service, would it be easy for me to switch to that service? How easy is it for me to transfer my data from my old service to my new service?

For services like Mail, there are standard protocols for data access. So this is not an issue. However for the more recent services, like blogging, micro-blogging etc, the most widely used data access methodology/format is 'HTTP' via 'RSS' or 'ATOM'.

However, it's not the case that all services provide data as RSS (or XML or in any other parseable form). For example, suppose I make a list of movies I have watched, in some Facebook application, or a list of restaurants I visited, how do I download this list? If I cannot download it, does it mean I am tied to this application provider forever? What if I have added 200 movies in my original service and I come across another service that has better interface and more features and I want to switch to this new service but not lose the data that I have invested time to enter in my original service?

In fact, recently when I tried to download all my Twitters, I realized that this feature has been disabled. You are not able to get your old Twitters in XML format.

So what do we do when a service does not provide data as XML and we need to somehow scrape that data and store it?

This is kind of related to my last blog entry.

So I started thinking of ways in which I could download my Twitters. The solution I thought of initially was using Rhino and John Resig's project (mentioned in my previous blog entry). However, I ran into parse issues like before. So I had to think of alternative ways.

Now I took advantage of the fact that Twitters are short (and not more than 140 characters).

The solution I came up with uses a combination of Greasemonkey and PHP on the server side:

Here is the GM script:
If you intend to use this, do remember to change the URL to post data to.

// @name           Twitter Downloader

// @namespace

// @author         Gautham Pai

// @include*

// @description    Post Twitters to a remote site 

// ==/UserScript==

function twitterLoader (){
	var timeLine = document.getElementById('timeline');
	var spans = timeLine.getElementsByTagName('span');
	var url = '';
	var twitters = new Array();
	for(var i=0;i<spans.length;i++){
		if(spans[i].className != 'entry-title entry-content'){
	for(var i=0;i<twitters.length;i++){
		var last = 'false';
		if(i == twitters.length - 1)
			last = 'true';
		var scriptElement = document.createElement('script');


The server side PHP code is:


global $_REQUEST;
$data = $_REQUEST['data'];
//Store data in the DB, CouchDB (or some other location)
$last = $_REQUEST['last'];
if($last == 'true'){
	echo "
	var divs = document.getElementsByTagName('div');
	var j= 0;
		if(divs[j].className == 'pagination')
	var sectionLinks = divs[j].getElementsByTagName('a');
	var href = '';
	if(sectionLinks.length == 2)
		href = sectionLinks[1].href;
		href = sectionLinks[0].href;
	var presentPage = parseInt(document.location.href[document.location.href.indexOf('page')+'page'.length+1]);
	var nextPage = parseInt(href[href.indexOf('page')+'page'.length+1]);
	if(nextPage < presentPage)
		alert('No more pages to parse');
	else {
		alert('Changing document location');
		document.location.href = href;
} else {
	echo "
	var recorder = 'true';


The GM script scrapes the twitters from a page and posts it to the server using <script> includes. The server stores the twitters in some data store. The server also checks if the twitter posted was the last twitter in the page. If so, it sends back code to change to the next page.

Thus the script when installed, will post twitters from the most recent to the oldest.

Ok, now how would this work with other services?

The pattern seems to be:
* Get the data elements from the present page – data elements could be movie details, restaurant details etc.
* Post data elements to the server.
** The posting might require splitting the content if the length is more than the maximum length of the GET request URL.
* Identify how you can move to the next page and when to move to the next page. Use this to hint the server to change to the next page.
* Write the server side logic to store data elements.
* Use the hint from the client to change to the next page when required.

The biggest advantage of this method is we make use of the browser to do authentication with the remote service and also to do the parsing of the HTML (which, as I mentioned in my previous post, browsers are best at).

HTML parsing and Rhino

About a year back I was working on a personal project in IBM. This was a clone of YubNub for the IBM intranet.

For those of you who don’t know YubNub, it is a simple but powerful tool, which allows you to define keywords to reach pages. One of the popular examples is gim which will take you to the Google Image Search results page for the keywords that you entered.

When I built this YubNub clone, I had plans to introduce the feature of defining commands to get data from specific portions of a page. For example, you would be able to fetch the telephone number of a person using a command like: telephone . The way this works is by scraping the content off a page containing the telephone number at a specific section in the person’s profile page.

But wouldn’t it be cool to provide the flexibility to the user to define what to fetch from a page on the Intranet? You can ask the user to define what content to fetch from a page when he creates the command.

Look at the YubNub create command interface. The basic information asked in the page is:

  • Name of the command
  • URL
  • Description

Now imagine having an extra text-field which asks you to enter the XPath to the content that you want to scrape from the resultant page.

In simple words, this means, you are saying, fetch this page, then get this specific portion of the page and only give me that content. You could perhaps pipe that content to some other command or play with that content in umpteen ways. I haven’t followed YubNub of-late, but I am sure there are many commands in YubNub which have similar functionality.

Now in principle, although this is possible there was one major issue I faced. The server had to do the page fetch and then page scraping. Now although there are very good XML parsers out there, there is no good ‘XML’ parser for HTML. And XPath does not work unless the page is XML.

Most pages on the Internet are HTML (or XHTML) and although it is straight-forward to transform them to XML, anyone who has tried it will see that this is not a simple solution. When you try to parse an XHTML page (even popular pages out there) you will run into issues like ‘entity not defined’ or ‘matching element not found’ etc. Although there are tools like Tidy or TagSoup, you are not guaranteed that the output of such tools is a well-formed XML.

On the other hands, browsers are extremely flexible in the way they handle HTML. Traversing through the HTML DOM is really simple and many a times you don’t even realize that your browser has silently corrected 10’s of errors in the page. You can get to any specific portion of the page using HTML DOM functions or using libraries like JQuery.

So what I was looking for, was some tool which had the flexibility of the browser’s HTML handling, but at the same time was able to function on the server.

As if by co-incidence, I ran into this post from John Resig (the person popular for JQuery). John describes one of his projects on bringing the browser environment to Rhino. He also gives an example of how to scrape content from a web-page and send the result to a file.

Wow! This is exactly what I had been looking for. Since Rhino can be embedded in Java, all you would need to do is to make a call to the JS function to scrape content and then pass the content back to Java and continue with your processing.

Although I don’t work on the project anymore, I see requirement of this functionality in many other places. For example, just sometime back, I was looking for a simple tool to fetch Tiddlers from Tiddlywiki and convert them into a simple HTML page. This will help in supporting those browsers which don’t have Javascript enabled. I tried some of the tools out there, but most of them failed. So I planned to write my own. And lo, I came across this same issue. TiddlyWiki content is in HTML and this content is not easy to parse using XML parsers (which is perhaps why many of those tools failed). So how about using Rhino and John’s project to scrape content from the wiki and sending it to a file in a different format?

The project looks very promising. I should follow it closely.

Bulls and cows and the Javascript challenge

About 2 years back, I had conducted an experiment with the Bulls and Cows game[1] [2]. I now wanted to see what the 'human average' for the game is. So I wanted to build a small Facebook application to add the social aspect to the game and conduct my experiments.

But before I continued, I had to solve a major problem.

If I continue to make it a Javascript game, as is hosted here, I need to ensure that the random number generated by the browser is secure and not manipulated or found out by the player using illegal ways.

Anyone who knows a bit of Javascript and is used to looking at code using Firebug will soon be able to 'guess' the number in one step:

Debugging using Firebug

Yeah, that's right. I store the random number generated in a variable randomNo. And you can find out the value using Firebug. Now this is fine, as long as it is not a competition and you play the game because you actually like it and not because you are winning a million dollars. But what if this game was being played for money?

So my next attempt was to think of storing a MD5 of the number and then match it with the MD5 of the number entered by the player. This works well as long as the random number is generated on the server side and only the MD5 is sent to the client.

Can the random number and its MD5 be generated on the client side without the user being able to 'debug' and get the random number?

My first attempt towards this was the following piece of code:

function getRandomNo(){
        var md5OfRandomNo = MD5(Math.floor(Math.random()*10001)+'');
	return md5OfRandomNo;

But unfortunately:


and you step into the function and:



Right now, I am still not able to find a fool-proof way to generate the random number on the client side. Is there a solution?

Ok, let's say the number is securely generated in some way (client or server) and we only store the MD5 value on the client. Now, there is a second problem:

What if the player just changes the random number altogether?

>>> randomNo
>>> randomNo = MD5('7839')

We need to maintain a session and include some verification code to ensure that the MD5 was not manipulated.

Is there a solution for this if we want to write the entire game using only Javascript? Are there any other issues other than the 2 described?